What You Need to Know About Tanning

What You Need to Know About Tanning

Until the advent of spray tanning and sunless tanning products, the phrase “healthy tan” was a bit of a contradiction. Tanning with ultraviolet (UV) radiation, whether it comes from the sun or from an indoor tanning bed, is dangerous. So why do more than 1 million people tan in tanning salons in the United States every day?

Understanding Ultraviolet Radiation

Many tanning myths stem from confusion about the effects of different types of UV rays. Ultraviolet radiation is part of the light spectrum that reaches the earth from the sun. These wavelengths are invisible to the naked eye and include UVA, UVB, and UVC rays. While shorter UVC rays are absorbed by the ozone layer, UVA (long-wave) and UVB (shortwave) penetrate the atmosphere.

UVA Rays

UVA rays account for the majority of UV radiation that reaches the earth, and most tanning beds primarily emit UVA rays. Though less intense than UVB rays, UVA rays penetrate the skin more deeply. They reach the lower layers of the epidermis where they trigger cells called melanocytes to produce melanin. This brown pigment is what causes the skin to tan, and also protects the skin from burning. People with darker skin produce more melanin and often do not burn in the sun. However, just because a person does not burn easily does not mean they are protected from skin cancer.

According to the Skin Cancer Foundation (SCF), UVA also damages skin cells called keratinocytes, which are located in the deepest layer of the epidermis. This can initiate the development of skin cancer.

UVB Rays

UVB rays are the primary cause of most sunburn or skin reddening. They are more intense during certain seasons or times of day. For example, UVB rays are most intense between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during the spring, summer, and early fall months.  However, UVB rays can burn or damage the skin at any time of year.

For some time, there was conflicting information on the potentially dangerous effects of UVA and UVB rays — scientists once believed that only shorter UVB rays were of concern. However, new evidence shows that longer UVA rays can be just as damaging to the skin and eyes. By damaging the skin’s cellular DNA, both UVA and UVB rays increase the risk for skin cancer, cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye), and premature skin aging.

Part 3 of 5: Risks

Risks Associated with Tanning

UV radiation causes premature skin aging and increases your risk for burns. If you tan, however, that’s the least of your concerns.

Tanning indisputably increases the risk of skin cancers, including a rare but deadly form of cancer called melanoma. The incidence of melanomas diagnosed at a more advanced stage is on the rise, and researchers believe indoor tanning is to blame. According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), use of tanning beds increases the risk for melanoma by 75 percent, and risk increases with each use. This number gets higher for those who begin using tanning beds before the age of 35, increasing the risk for melanoma to 87 percent.

These advanced cancers are lethal. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), melanomas account for 9,700 out of an estimated 13,000 skin cancer deaths each year. Survival rates are higher (approximately 91 percent) in cases where the cancer has not metastasized (spreads to other parts of the body); however, five-year survival rates for regional and distant metastases plummet to 62 and 16 percent, respectively.

Non-melanomas, including basal and squamous cell cancers, occur both on the skin’s surface and within the deepest layers of the epidermis. These cancers are more common, and typically appear in sun-exposed areas, such as the face, ears, and neck. Unlike melanomas, these cancers rarely spread to other parts of the body.

Part 4 of 5: Myths

Myths about Tanning and Sun Exposure

Some people think only childhood sunburns are dangerous. If you had a few bad childhood sunburns, they argue, why bother to protect yourself now? The damage has been done. However, the danger of tanning is dose-related and cumulative — that is, the more UV radiation you’re exposed to over a period of time, the higher your cancer risk. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) closely regulates the use of tanning beds.

Another argument is that using a tanning bed gives you a so-called base tan that allows you to avoid sunburn. But research indicates that any radiation is dangerous, whether its source is the UVA rays that tan the skin or the UVB rays that burn it.

Part 5 of 5: Sun Safety

Protecting Your Skin

So, what’s the final word on tanning? Don’t do it. Avoid tanning beds and lamps, and limit your sun exposure, especially between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when UVB rays are most intense. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or more. Wear a hat, sunglasses, and protective clothing when outdoors.

If you absolutely must have a deep glow, try a spray tan. The same chemical, dihydroxyacetone (DHA), is used whether you get airbrushed in a salon or apply the spray at home. Because DHA is a color additive, the safety of the agent has been reviewed and approved by the FDA. DHA is also used in sunless tanning lotions, mousses, bronzers, and moisturizers. Whether you pay a lot of money for them at a department store cosmetics counter or buy them inexpensively at a drugstore, it is up to you.

What causes chapped lips 2 possible conditions

Chapped, or cracked, lips is the term commonly used to describe dry lips. Chapped lips can be caused by a number of factors, including the weather, excessive licking of the lips, and certain medications.

Chapped lips is a very common condition that only occurs occasionally for most people. However, some people may develop a more severe form of chapped lips called cheilitis. Cheilitis, which can be caused by an infection, is characterized by cracked skin at the corners of the lips.

You can usually treat your dry lips with simple treatment and preventive measures. If your lips continue to be severely dry and cracked, you should consider making an appointment with a dermatologist.

Symptoms of Chapped Lips

You may experience any of the following common symptoms on and/or around your lips if you have chapped lips:

  • dryness
  • flaking
  • scales
  • sores
  • swelling
  • cracks
  • bleeding

What Causes Chapped Lips?

Lips don’t contain oil glands like other parts of the skin. For this reason, the lips are more susceptible to drying out and becoming chapped (cracked). Lack of moisture can make the problem worse, whether it’s weather-induced or related to a lack of self-care. Lack of humidity in the air during the winter months is known to cause chapped lips. Frequent sun exposure in the summer can also worsen your condition.

Another common cause of chapped lips is habitual licking. Saliva from the tongue can further strip the lips of moisture, causing more dryness.

Risk Factors for Chapped Lips

People of all ages and genders can get chapped lips, particularly if they have dry skin.

Taking certain medications can also increase your risk of developing chapped lips. Medications and supplements that can cause chapped lips in some people include:

  • vitamin A
  • retinoids (Retin-A, Differin)
  • lithium (commonly used to treat bipolar disorder)
  • chemotherapy drugs

People who suffer from dehydration and malnutrition are also more likely to have chapped lips than other people. You should call a doctor if either of these are associated with your chapped lips — dehydration and malnutrition are both serious conditions that require immediate medical attention.

When to Seek Medical Treatment

Cheilitis

If the severe dryness and cracking doesn’t improve with self-care measures, you should see a dermatologist. Cheilitis is often to blame for severely chapped lips. This is a condition marked by cracked skin at the mouth corners, as well as several cracks on your lips.

If you have this condition, your lips may:

  • be dark pink or red in color
  • have a lumpy texture
  • develop ulcers
  • have white plaques on the surface

Cheilitis is often attributed to infections and inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease. Dental trauma and excessive saliva production may also turn a regular case of chapped lips into cheilitis, as bacteria can enter through the cracks and cause an infection. Adults and children who have orthodontic braces, wear dentures, or use pacifiers are all susceptible to developing cheilitis.

A dermatologist can determine whether your dry lips are simply chapped or if you have cheilitis.

Dehydration and Malnutrition

Dry lips can also be caused by dehydration or malnutrition.

Dehydration causes symptoms such as lightheadedness, constipation, decreased urine production, dry mouth, and headache. In severe cases, a person suffering from dehydration may experience low blood pressure, fever, rapid breathing, or a rapid heartbeat.

Malnutrition is characterized by many of the same symptoms as dehydration, but can also cause muscle weakness, decaying teeth, a bloated stomach, and bone fragility. Malnutrition can be caused by vitamin deficiencies, so those on limited diets (for example, vegetarians) need to make sure that they are getting enough of the vitamins they need.

Alcoholics, in particular, are more susceptible to malnutrition due to vitamin deficiencies because excessive alcohol use can interfere with their body’s vitamin absorption. Older adults are also at higher risk for malnutrition because decreased appetite is common among seniors.

If you suspect that you are dehydrated or malnourished, see your doctor immediately.

How to Treat and Prevent Chapped Lips

Chapped lips can usually be treated at home. The first step is to make sure that your lips have enough moisture. This can be accomplished by:

  • applying lip balm throughout the day, as needed
  • drinking more water
  • using a humidifier in the home
  • avoiding cold weather conditions or wrapping your mouth with a scarf

Sun exposure can also cause chapped lips, especially as you age. Apply a lip balm that contains a minimum SPF of 15 before heading outdoors. The balm itself helps to moisturize the lips, while the sunscreen minimizes further drying effects.

How To Make Lip Balm Lip Balm Recipe

This is my favorite lip balm recipe that I am sharing with you. I am addicted to lip balm and put loads on during the day. I can never have enough around. I get my lip balm in my purse, in the car, in the pocket of every coat, by my computer, and the list goes on. This lip balm is also great used on your cuticles.

DIRECTIONS:

Phase 1:

Break Phase 1 solids (beeswax, coconut oil, shea butter, aloe vera butter, cocoa butter) into smaller pieces. This speeds up the melting process.

In a heat-proof glass container (a pyrex measuring cup will work), add the pieces of solid oils. Place the container in a shallow pan of water over low heat (the water level should come up to about half way up the sides). Simmer the water gently, and let the solids melt until liquefied. Once melted, remove from heat. NOTE: Use caution and never heat over direct heat.


Phase 2:

Add Phase 2 oils to the hot melted oils; stir together to blend. Be careful not to burn yourself. Oils and wax get hot very quickly and the temperature can climb higher than you suspect.


Phase 3
:

Add Phase 3 ingredients (vitamin E and essential oil). Stir to blend together. Be careful when adding essential oil, as they can be overpowering. I like to just faintly scent my lip balms. You may substitute for any flavor you prefer.

Pour into ¼-or ½-ounce containers of your choice and let cool thoroughly before placing lids. Don’t let the mixture cool too much before pouring. If the lip balm begins to solidify and clings to the edges of the pot or measuring cup, quickly reheat the oil. NOTE? You can purchase disposable droppers (pipettes) for getting the hot solution into the containers.

Lip balm tubes will hold about .15 ounces of product.

Lip balm pots will hold about .25 ounces of product.

Once the solution cools there will be a slight indentation from shrinkage

Making your own lip balm and/or gloss is simple, very economical, and it is truly rewarding. By making your own lip balm, you know what products are going into it, and that you are using safe ingredients. I have made my own lip balms for several years now. They also make great gifts.

Bumps on Lips

What Are Bumps on Lips?

bzFrom an allergic reaction to oral cancer, there are many possible causes of lip bumps. Lip bumps can visually range from red and irritated, to flesh-toned and hardly noticeable to anyone but you.

Recognizing potential causes of lip bumps can help you determine if a condition is cause for concern or simply a harmless skin variation.

What Causes Bumps on Lips?

Bumps on the lips can range in size, color, and texture. Causes may include acute and chronic conditions. Examples of causes of bumps on the lips include:

  • allergic reaction
  • bacterial infections
  • canker sores (or cold sores)
  • Fordyce granules, harmless white spots
  • hand, foot, and mouth disease
  • milia (a tiny benign cyst or “milk spot”)
  • mucoceles, or bumps that form when the salivary glands are blocked
  • oral cancer
  • oral herpes
  • oral thrush
  • perioral dermatitis, a face rash due to skin irritation

While many lip bumps are harmless, conditions like oral cancer can have serious health risks.

Discover the six best cold sore remedies »

Part 3 of 6: Seeking Help

When to Seek Medical Help

Seek emergency medical care if you experience the following symptoms along with bumps on your lips:

  • bleeding on your lips that will not stop
  • difficulty breathing
  • sudden swelling of your lips
  • breaking out into a rash that spreads rapidly

Make an appointment to see your doctor if you experience these symptoms:

  • bumps that are very painful
  • bumps that bleed
  • bumps that worsen over time or seem to be enlarging
  • jaw swelling
  • a soft, white patchy area on your lips
  • tongue numbness

Part 4 of 6: Diagnosis

How Are Bumps on Lips Diagnosed?

A doctor will conduct a health history when you seek medical treatment. Your doctor will likely ask if you have risk factors for lip bumps, such as smoking, sun exposure, taking new medications, or any allergens you may have been exposed to.

A physical examination typically follows. A doctor will look at your lips and ask you about your symptoms. You may be asked when you first noticed the bumps, your pain level, and any changes you may have noticed.

Your doctor may recommend further testing, including:

  • taking a blood test to detect viruses or bacteria
  • testing the skin cells (by a biopsy) for the presence of cancer
  • X-ray imaging to view the mouth and jaw to detect abnormalities

In the cases of simple conditions like thrush and oral herpes, a doctor can often make a diagnosis solely through a visual examination.

Part 5 of 6: Treatment

How Are Bumps on Lips Treated?

Treatment for bumps on the lips depends upon its cause. Doctors can prescribe medications to treat infections. These include anti-fungal and anti-viral medications along with antibiotics.

Allergic reactions and dermatitis may be treated with antihistamine medications to reverse inflammatory reactions. These can include pills or creams to reduce discomfort.

While conditions such as canker sores and oral herpes can be treated, they can’t be permanently cured. You may get them again at a future time.

Oral cancer can involve more extensive treatments, like surgery to remove the cancerous lesion. Further medications and radiation treatments may be needed to prevent the cancer from spreading.

Part 6 of 6: At-Home Care

How Do I Care for Bumps on Lips at Home?

Do not neglect good oral hygiene habits when you have lip bumps. This includes brushing your teeth at least two to three times a day and flossing at least once a day. If you have an infection that’s causing the bumps on your lips, replace your toothbrush once the infection has healed.

You can also take over-the-counter pain relievers to minimize pain and discomfort associated with bumps on the lips. Rinsing and spitting with a warm saltwater solution can also help minimize inflammation and irritation.

Refrain from irritating or picking at the skin on your lips. This can affect your healing time and make you vulnerable to infection. Follow your doctor’s directions for treating the bumps and be sure not to disturb the affected area.

What Are White Bumps on Lips?

Your lips help you communicate with the world. When you have white bumps on them, you may naturally feel self-conscious. These bumps can have various causes. While most aren’t concerning, sometimes white bumps can indicate oral cancer. Seeking medical attention can ensure you stay as healthy as possible. What Causes White Bumps on Lips?

Numerous causes can lead to white bumps on the lips. These include:

  • Fordyce spots: These harmless, tiny (1 to 2 mm) white bumps inside the lips are visible sebaceous or oil-producing glands. These spots tend to get bigger as a person gets older. A person may have one small bump or as many as 100 bumps on the lips, typically on the inner portion.
  • herpes simplex: Oral herpes can cause white bumps or canker sores on the lips. These may first appear as small sores then become blistered and fluid-filled.
  • milia: Common in babies, milia are small, white bumps that occur when small, dead skin cells becomes trapped in the skin. While milia most commonly occur on the face, they also can appear on the lips.
  • oral cancer: A white bump may appear on the face as flat or raised in texture. The bump is usually painless at first but may eventually start to bleed or ulcerate. Sun exposure, alcohol abuse, tobacco use (especially chewing tobacco), and the human papillomavirus (HPV) are all known oral cancer causes.
  • oral thrush: Oral thrush is a fungal infection that causes white lesions on the lips, mouth, gums, or tonsils. The fungus Candida albicans is the most common fungal strain to cause oral thrush.

Sometimes white bumps on the lips are a harmless genetic variation. Just as some people have moles or birthmarks, others may have white bumps on the lips.

See photos of oral thrush, a yeast infection that develops inside your mouth »

Part 3 of 6: Seeking Help

When to Seek Medical Help

White bumps on the lips are rarely a cause to seek emergency medical attention. However, you may wish to make an appointment with your doctor if you have the following symptoms along with white bumps on the lips:

  • bumps that are painful
  • bumps that bleed
  • feeling as if something is caught in your throat
  • jaw or neck swelling
  • numbness of your tongue
  • trouble chewing or swallowing
  • fever or sore throat

If your white bumps don’t go away after two weeks, make an appointment to see your doctor.

Part 4 of 6: Diagnosis

How Are White Bumps on Lips Diagnosed?

A doctor will take a full medical history and conduct a physical exam to view the white bumps on your lips. The doctor will feel your face and jaw for swelling and examine your lips and the insides of your lips. They will also examine your neck for lymph node swelling.

If needed, your doctor may swab your lip. This is known as a culture. A laboratory can test the culture to determine if bacteria, viruses, or fungi may be causing the bumps. If a doctor suspects you may have oral cancer, a tissue sample may be collected to test for cancerous cells.

In many cases, a doctor may be able to diagnose the white bumps on your lips by a visual examination. Blood tests can also determine if the herpes virus is present.

Part 5 of 6: Treatment

How Are White Bumps on Lips Treated?

Treatment for white bumps on the lips depends on the cause of your symptoms. Some conditions, such as Fordyce spots, do not require any treatment. However, if you don’t like the appearance of your Fordyce spots, removal is possible. Doctors can use techniques such as electrosurgery or laser treatments to remove them.

Thrush is often treated with anti-fungal medications, such as a liquid solution you swish in your mouth and swallow.

Antiviral medications can temporarily eliminate your oral herpes symptoms, but they won’t permanently cure the viral infection.

Oral cancers require different treatments based on the condition’s severity. Treatments can include surgical removal of the affected lesion, chemotherapy, or radiation to stop the cancer’s spread.

Part 6 of 6: At-Home Care

How Do I Care for White Bumps on Lips at Home?

Regardless of the cause of white bumps on your lips, avoid picking at them. This can cause the area to appear more irritated and increase the potential for infection.

With your doctor’s permission, you may wish to apply an ointment to your lips to keep them from getting too dry and painful. Rinsing with warm saltwater can also help minimize irritation. Mix a half-teaspoon of salt in a cup of warm water and swish the water in your mouth before spitting it out.

What You Need to Know About Tanning

What You Need to Know About Tanning

Until the advent of spray tanning and sunless tanning products, the phrase “healthy tan” was a bit of a contradiction. Tanning with ultraviolet (UV) radiation, whether it comes from the sun or from an indoor tanning bed, is dangerous. So why do more than 1 million people tan in tanning salons in the United States every day?

Understanding Ultraviolet Radiation

Many tanning myths stem from confusion about the effects of different types of UV rays. Ultraviolet radiation is part of the light spectrum that reaches the earth from the sun. These wavelengths are invisible to the naked eye and include UVA, UVB, and UVC rays. While shorter UVC rays are absorbed by the ozone layer, UVA (long-wave) and UVB (shortwave) penetrate the atmosphere.

UVA Rays

UVA rays account for the majority of UV radiation that reaches the earth, and most tanning beds primarily emit UVA rays. Though less intense than UVB rays, UVA rays penetrate the skin more deeply. They reach the lower layers of the epidermis where they trigger cells called melanocytes to produce melanin. This brown pigment is what causes the skin to tan, and also protects the skin from burning. People with darker skin produce more melanin and often do not burn in the sun. However, just because a person does not burn easily does not mean they are protected from skin cancer.

According to the Skin Cancer Foundation (SCF), UVA also damages skin cells called keratinocytes, which are located in the deepest layer of the epidermis. This can initiate the development of skin cancer.

UVB Rays

UVB rays are the primary cause of most sunburn or skin reddening. They are more intense during certain seasons or times of day. For example, UVB rays are most intense between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during the spring, summer, and early fall months.  However, UVB rays can burn or damage the skin at any time of year.

For some time, there was conflicting information on the potentially dangerous effects of UVA and UVB rays — scientists once believed that only shorter UVB rays were of concern. However, new evidence shows that longer UVA rays can be just as damaging to the skin and eyes. By damaging the skin’s cellular DNA, both UVA and UVB rays increase the risk for skin cancer, cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye), and premature skin aging.

Part 3 of 5: Risks

Risks Associated with Tanning

UV radiation causes premature skin aging and increases your risk for burns. If you tan, however, that’s the least of your concerns.

Tanning indisputably increases the risk of skin cancers, including a rare but deadly form of cancer called melanoma. The incidence of melanomas diagnosed at a more advanced stage is on the rise, and researchers believe indoor tanning is to blame. According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), use of tanning beds increases the risk for melanoma by 75 percent, and risk increases with each use. This number gets higher for those who begin using tanning beds before the age of 35, increasing the risk for melanoma to 87 percent.

These advanced cancers are lethal. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), melanomas account for 9,700 out of an estimated 13,000 skin cancer deaths each year. Survival rates are higher (approximately 91 percent) in cases where the cancer has not metastasized (spreads to other parts of the body); however, five-year survival rates for regional and distant metastases plummet to 62 and 16 percent, respectively.

Non-melanomas, including basal and squamous cell cancers, occur both on the skin’s surface and within the deepest layers of the epidermis. These cancers are more common, and typically appear in sun-exposed areas, such as the face, ears, and neck. Unlike melanomas, these cancers rarely spread to other parts of the body.

Part 4 of 5: Myths

Myths about Tanning and Sun Exposure

Some people think only childhood sunburns are dangerous. If you had a few bad childhood sunburns, they argue, why bother to protect yourself now? The damage has been done. However, the danger of tanning is dose-related and cumulative — that is, the more UV radiation you’re exposed to over a period of time, the higher your cancer risk. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) closely regulates the use of tanning beds.

Another argument is that using a tanning bed gives you a so-called base tan that allows you to avoid sunburn. But research indicates that any radiation is dangerous, whether its source is the UVA rays that tan the skin or the UVB rays that burn it.

Part 5 of 5: Sun Safety

Protecting Your Skin

So, what’s the final word on tanning? Don’t do it. Avoid tanning beds and lamps, and limit your sun exposure, especially between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when UVB rays are most intense. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or more. Wear a hat, sunglasses, and protective clothing when outdoors.

If you absolutely must have a deep glow, try a spray tan. The same chemical, dihydroxyacetone (DHA), is used whether you get airbrushed in a salon or apply the spray at home. Because DHA is a color additive, the safety of the agent has been reviewed and approved by the FDA. DHA is also used in sunless tanning lotions, mousses, bronzers, and moisturizers. Whether you pay a lot of money for them at a department store cosmetics counter or buy them inexpensively at a drugstore, it is up to you.

Facelift Alternatives Rid Patients Of Neck ‘Wattle’ Without The Downtime Of Surgery A

On the show Ally McBeal, a character was romantically pursued because of her neck “wattle” or loose skin – a scenario that would only happen on television, right? In reality, many people want to rid themselves of neck “wattle” to look younger or to wear certain clothes or accessories more comfortably, without having facelifts. They may feel they are too young or old for an invasive procedure, are not able to afford the prolonged recovery time, or only want targeted improvement of their neck region. Patients have less invasive options to rid the “wattle,” reports a study in May’s Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery?, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), through targeted neck rejuvenation techniques.

Not every patient who seeks to correct facial aging wants or requires a facelift,” said James Zins, MD, author of the study. “Today’s patients are extremely active and may not want to undergo invasive surgery where they are unable to work or play for several weeks. With this alternative, many patients look younger without the financial cost and downtime associated with a standard facelift.

As people age, they often loose definition in their chin and jaw line due to fatty deposits, weakening muscles and loose skin where the neck and chin once made a right angle. By improving the neck region, patients’ profiles look years younger and clothes and fashion accessories such as ties, turtlenecks, and necklaces are worn more comfortably.

Skin in the neck region differs from skin on other parts of the body because it maintains its elasticity and will contract after it is released from underlying muscle. Fat removal through an incision under the chin and behind the ears can be combined with muscle tightening and freeing the skin from the muscle, depending on the degree of aging and individual patient characteristics.

Younger patients, who generally have more skin elasticity and have a “wattle” because of an overload in fat deposits just under the skin, often benefit from liposuction alone. Middle-aged patients generally have fat deposits, as well as, loose neck muscles and skin, requiring the fat removal and muscle tightening technique. Patients older than 75 usually need more contouring in the neck region and require a facelift where excess skin is removed.

According to the study, 33 patients were treated using this combination of neck rejuvenation techniques. Twenty patients experienced moderate improvement to the neck region while 12 experienced a marked improvement.

“Approximately one in 10 patients is a good candidate for neck rejuvenation – but patients must maintain realistic expectations,” said Dr. Zins. “These techniques are targeted specifically for the neck and chin areas only. The mid-face and upper-face are clearly not improved by these procedures.”

According to ASPS statistics, more than 114,000 facelifts were performed in 2004.

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons is the largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons in the world. With more than 5,000 members, the society is recognized as a leading authority and information source on cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. ASPS comprises 94 percent of all board-certified plastic surgeons in the United States. Founded in 1931, the society represents physicians certified by The American Board of Plastic Surgery or The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.